'ITS Roadway Equipment' represents the ITS equipment that is distributed on and along the roadway that monitors and controls traffic and monitors and manages the roadway itself. This physical object includes traffic detectors, environmental sensors, traffic signals, highway advisory radios, dynamic message signs, CCTV cameras and video image processing systems, grade crossing warning systems, and ramp metering systems. Lane management systems and barrier systems that control access to transportation infrastructure such as roadways, bridges and tunnels are also included. This object also provides environmental monitoring including sensors that measure road conditions, surface weather, and vehicle emissions. Work zone systems including work zone surveillance, traffic control, driver warning, and work crew safety systems are also included.
'Roadway Barrier System Control' includes the field equipment that controls barrier systems used to control access to transportation facilities and infrastructure. Barrier systems include automatic or remotely controlled gates, barriers and other access control systems.
'Roadway Basic Surveillance' monitors traffic conditions using fixed equipment such as loop detectors and CCTV cameras.
'Roadway Data Collection' collects traffic, road, and environmental conditions information for use in transportation planning, research, and other off-line applications where data quality and completeness take precedence over real-time performance. It includes the sensors, supporting roadside infrastructure, and communications equipment that collects and transfers information to a center for archival.
'Roadway Environmental Monitoring' measures environmental conditions and communicates the collected information back to a center where it can be monitored and analyzed or to other field devices to support communications to vehicles. A broad array of general weather and road surface information may be collected. Weather conditions that may be measured include temperature, wind, humidity, precipitation, and visibility. Surface and sub-surface sensors can measure road surface temperature, moisture, icing, salinity, and other measures.
'Roadway Field Device Support' monitors the operational status of field devices and detects and reports fault conditions. Consolidated operational status (device status, configuration, and fault information) are reported for resolution and repair. A local interface is provided to field personnel for local monitoring and diagnostics, supporting field maintenance, upgrade, repair, and replacement of field devices.
'Roadway Field Management Station Operation' supports direct communications between field management stations and the local field equipment under their control.
'Roadway Incident Detection' provides incident detection using traffic detectors and surveillance equipment. It monitors for unusual traffic conditions that may indicate an incident or processes surveillance images, watching for potential incidents. It provides potential incident information as well as traffic flow and images to the center for processing and presentation to traffic operations personnel.
'Roadway Infrastructure Monitoring' monitors the condition of pavement, bridges, tunnels, associated hardware, and other transportation-related infrastructure (e.g., culverts). It includes sensors that monitor the infrastructure and the communications necessary to report this data to a center or vehicle-based maintenance system.
'Roadway Passive Monitoring' monitors passing vehicles for a signature that can be used to recognize the same vehicle at different points in the network and measure travel times. Depending on the implementation and the penetration rate of the technology that is monitored, other point traffic measures may also be inferred by monitoring the number of vehicles within range over time. Today this approach is implemented most commonly using a Bluetooth receiver that passively monitors Bluetooth devices on-board passing vehicles and license plate readers that record the vehicle license plate number, but any widely deployed vehicle communications technology or feature that can be passively monitored to uniquely identify a vehicle could be used.
'Roadway Signal Control' includes the field elements that monitor and control signalized intersections. It includes the traffic signal controllers, detectors, conflict monitors, signal heads, and other ancillary equipment that supports traffic signal control. It also includes field masters, and equipment that supports communications with a central monitoring and/or control system, as applicable. The communications link supports upload and download of signal timings and other parameters and reporting of current intersection status. It represents the field equipment used in all levels of traffic signal control from basic actuated systems that operate on fixed timing plans through adaptive systems. It also supports all signalized intersection configurations, including those that accommodate pedestrians. In advanced, future implementations, environmental data may be monitored and used to support dilemma zone processing and other aspects of signal control that are sensitive to local environmental conditions.
'Roadway Traffic Information Dissemination' includes field elements that provide information to drivers, including dynamic message signs and highway advisory radios.
'Roadway Warning' includes the field equipment used to warn drivers approaching hazards on a roadway. Warnings may be generated in response to roadway weather conditions, road surface conditions, traffic conditions including queues, obstacles or animals in the roadway, and any other transient events that can be sensed. The equipment monitors traffic and roadway conditions and may send data to a Traffic Management Center for processing or may process it to determine when a warning should be issued. When it is determined that a warning should be issued, the equipment is used to alert approaching drivers via dynamic warning signs, flashing lights, in-vehicle messages, etc.
'Roadway Work Zone Traffic Control' controls traffic in areas of the roadway where maintenance and construction activities are underway, monitoring and controlling traffic using field equipment such as CCTV cameras, dynamic messages signs, and gates/barriers. Work zone speeds and delays are provided to the motorist prior to the work zones.